The Effects of Cultural Leadership Ideals on Individual Entrepreneurship.
The aim of this research is to analyze the role of culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLTs), particularly the cultural expectations about ideal leadership on individual entrepreneurship in a national culture, as of Lebanon culture. Entrepreneurship is the ability, know-how and enthusiasm of an individual to start a new business, even though it is considered a specific behavior with beneficial cultural keys features acknowledged as stimulators, as bearing uncertainty and individual competitive actions. At the same time, it is one of the important types of leadership, known in the market and among individuals. We will develop points about culture and entrepreneurship matching by integrating: cultural values, in terms of uncertainty avoidance and collectivism (in-group collectivism), cultural practices and culturally endorsed implicit leadership, by means of self-protective and charismatic CLTs. Moreover, we will find data to our variables by the use of a quantitative approach. This choice is made for the purpose of addressing the relationship between cultural leadership ideals and individual entrepreneurship. So, the regression analyses are the most useful and adopted methodological technique to be applied in the study for the aim of forecasting the effect that independent variables have on a dependent variable, which will be based on logistic regressions, structural equation model and multiple regressions. This analysis falls into studying the relation between culture and entrepreneurship in Lebanon, for a sample of 118 individual entrepreneurships within the year 2018. Based on our data, analysis and theory of implicit leadership, our empirical results showed a strong correlated relationship between CLTs, cultural values (and practices) and individual entrepreneurship. Moreover, individuals with little entrepreneurial experience (0-1 years) and entrepreneurial intentions are more likely to hold views favoring high levels of self-sacrifice (charismatic CLT) and face-saver (self-protective CLT) attitudes, and that individuals with much more entrepreneurial experience (4-5 years) are more likely to have high regard for visions, inspiration, integrity, decisiveness and performance oriented (charismatic CLT) attitude. Therefore, cultural values – uncertainty avoidance and collectivism – do not influence individual entrepreneurship mainly indirectly through self-protective and charismatic CLTs. However, such similarities of indirect effect are not noticed for cultural practices too. Further, the results generated by a non-representative sample, as of the present study, must be interpreted with considerable caution, due to the fact that it doesn’t represent the whole population.
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